True indeed Ciprian. A recently completed project profiled here (…) attempted to examine both of these barriers (supply and demand if you like) from the learner perspective. When talking to us about competences and how they may be validated, learners across all 6 countries articulated a growing frustration that they were not being encouraged or facilitated to think outside of a very top-down formal set of criteria, affecting their decision-making about where they intended to go next.

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